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  • Increased Profits

    Glycal Forte® has been shown to improve rumen pH post-calving, leading to improved energy balance and thus reduced weight-loss post-calving, increased milk yield and fertility, reduced SCC and lameness


    Therefore, trying to isolate the cost-saving associated with improving one of the above conditions, without taking the others into account, is difficult. However, several studies have analysed the costs of excessive negative energy balance or subclinical ketosis (SCK). This is done by determining the standard cost of a single condition and also the increased likelihood of the condition occurring in cows with SCK vs cows with ‘normal’ ketone body levels post-calving. Adding the individual costs of the metabolic disorders and adverse outcomes associated with the period soon after calving, while allowing for interactions, gives a total cost per cow with SCK. The table below summarises the findings, with the final column giving the cost per every cow in the head, using an assumed SCK incidence of 40%.

    The ability of Glycal Forte® to improve energy balance of transition cows, and therefore reduce the costs associated with SCK, results in increased profits for the farm.



    Overton, M.W. 2014. Economic consequences of the vital 90TM days. In: 2014 Cornell Nutrition Conference Proceedings.
    Esslemont, R.J. 2012. The costs of ketosis in dairy cows. In: Proceedings of World Buiatrics Congress 2012.
    Gohary, K., Overton, M.W., Von Massow, M., LeBlanc, S.J., Lissemore, K.D. and Duffield, T.F. 2016. The cost of a case of subclinical ketosis in Canadian dairy herds. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 57, pp. 728-732.
    McArt, J.A.A., Nydam, D.V. and Overton, M.W. 2015. Hyperketonemia in early lactation dairy cattle: A deterministic estimate of component and total cost per case. Journal of Dairy Science, 98, pp. 2043-2054.
    Mostert, P.F., Bokkers, E.A.M., van Middelaar, C.E., Hogeveen, H. and de Boer, I.J.M. 2018. Estimating the economic impact of subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle using a dynamic stochastic simulation model. Animal, 12, pp. 145-154.
    Raboisson, D., Mouniéc, M., Khenifard, E. and Maignéc, E. 2015. The economic impact of subclinical ketosis at the farm level: Tackling the challenge of over-estimation due to multiple interactions. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 122, pp. 417-425.